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Types of arthritis

Home Types of arthritis

Types of arthritis - Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Ankylosing spondylitis Non-radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis Psoriatic arthritis Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Gout Haemochromatosis and haemochromatotic arthritis Lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus) Polymyalgia rheumatica Reactive arthritis Ross River virus Scleroderma Sjögren’s syndrome Spondyloarthritis

  • 01
    Osteoarthritis is the most common form of joint disease. It affects the whole joint including bone, cartilage, ligaments and muscles. Although often described as ‘wear and tear’, this is not an accurate description of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is now thought to be the result of a joint working extra hard to repair itself.
  • 02
    Rheumatoid arthritis
    Rheumatoid arthritis, a common inflammatory form of arthritis, is an autoimmune disease that causes pain and swelling of the joints. In an autoimmune disease, your immune system starts attacking your own healthy tissues. In RA, the immune system targets the lining of the joints, causing inflammation and joint damage.
  • 03
    Ankylosing spondylitis
    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a condition that mainly affects the spine. The joints of the neck, back and pelvis become inflamed, causing pain and stiffness. Other joints, such as the hips and shoulders, and other areas of the body such as the eyes, skin, bowel and lungs, can also be involved. Symptoms of AS usually begin between the ages of 15 and 45 years.
  • 04
    Non-radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis
    Non-radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) is an autoimmune disease which causes arthritis in the spine and pelvis. While the body’s immune system is designed to fight infections to keep you healthy, in people with nr-axSpA, the immune system creates inflammation in the joints of the spine and pelvis. This causes pain and stiffness and may lead to joint damage. In its early stages, nr-axSpA can be mistaken for general back pain.
  • 05
    Psoriatic arthritis
    Psoriatic arthritis is a condition that causes inflammation of the joints. This causes the joints to become painful, stiff and often swollen. Usually, only people who have a skin disease called psoriasis are affected by psoriatic arthritis
  • 06
    Polymyalgia rheumatica
    Polymyalgia rheumatica means ‘pain in many muscles. It is a condition that causes inflammation of the joints and tissues around the joints. This causes muscles to feel painful and stiff, especially in the shoulder, neck and hip areas. Polymyalgia rheumatica is different to fibromyalgia, a condition that does not cause inflammation.
  • 07
    Reactive arthritis
    Reactive arthritis is a condition that causes inflammation, pain and swelling of the joints. It usually develops after an infection, often in the bowel or genital areas. The infection causes activity in the immune system.
  • 08
    Ross River virus
    Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus are infections that are spread to humans through mosquito bites. They cause similar illnesses, including joint inflammation and pain. People of all ages are at risk of developing these infections. Ross River virus is the most common and widespread of mosquito borne diseases that infect humans.
  • 09


    Fibromyalgia is a name given to a common group of symptoms marked by generalised pain and muscle stiffness, as well as extreme fatigue. These may range from very mild to severe, and may last for many years or come and go at different times. With the right advice most, people find they learn to manage the pain and tiredness over time.
  • 10

    Giant Cell Arteritis

    Giant Cell Arteritis is an autoimmune disease, where the body attacks its own blood vessels. It is also known as temporal arteritis as it can cause pain, inflammation and tenderness around the temples. Around 1,000 are diagnosed with GCA each year.
  • 11


    Gout is a common and painful condition that affects the joints. Small crystals form in and around the joint, causing inflammation, pain and swelling. An attack of gout usually comes on very quickly, often overnight. The joint becomes very red, swollen and extremely painful. Gout normally affects one joint at a time, often the joint of the big toe.
  • 12

    Haemochromatosis and haemochromatotic arthritis

    Haemochromatosis is a condition caused by a build-up of iron in your body. People with haemochromatosis absorb too much iron from food (iron overload) and the extra iron can damage organs, particularly the liver, heart, pancreas, bones and joints.
  • 13

    Lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (also called SLE or lupus) is an autoimmune condition. The normal role of your body’s immune system is to fight off infections and diseases to keep you healthy. In an autoimmune disease like lupus, your immune system starts attacking your own healthy tissues.
  • 14


    The word ‘scleroderma’ means ‘hard skin’. Scleroderma affects the connective tissues of the body (tissues that hold together joints, muscles, blood vessels and internal organs). Symptoms vary greatly from person to person and also depend on what part of the body is involved.
  • 15

    Sjögren’s syndrome

    Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune condition. The normal role of your body’s immune system is to fight off infections and diseases to keep you healthy. In an autoimmune disease like Sjögren’s syndrome, your immune system starts attacking your own healthy tissues.
  • 16


    Spondyloarthritis (sometimes called spondyloarthropathy or seronegative arthritis) is a name for types of arthritis that commonly affect the spine.